Pap Stain Pdf

Hysteroscopy Vacuum aspiration. As fixation is not required, the staining time is seconds and therefore very useful for intraoperative cytology, rapid assessment of adequacy of samples and rapid diagnosis. Cervical and vaginal cancer. Endocervical adenocarcinoma on a pap test.

Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. As abnormal endocervical cells may be sampled, those examining them are taught to recognize them. As such, it is used for cervical cancer screening in gynecology. Premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix are not uncommon in our set up and can be diagnosed early by Pap smears. Acidic dye stains the basic components of the cell and basic dye stain the acidic components of the cell.


Many health care providers are under the false impression that only sterile water, or no lubricant at all, should be used to lubricate the speculum. Priyanka Choudhary Department of Pathology, Dr. Since its inception, Pap stain remains the traditional and preferred stain, not only for the gynecological cytology, but also the lesions of other organs. Cell loss with wet fixation is avoided, and therefore recommended for lipid rich tumors like lipoma. Vulvectomy Female genital mutilation Labiaplasty Clitoral hood reduction Vestibulectomy.

Total staining time was seconds. The finding of coccoid bacteria on a pap test is of no consequence with otherwise normal test findings and no infectious symptoms. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology.

The decolourising process is then stopped by immersing the slide in running tap water. Papanicolaou's name was repeatedly submitted to the Nobel Committee and rejected every time. They do not perform as well as Pap smear screening and colposcopy. You should have mentioned the basic system for concluding the results for carcinoma, as its used mainly for cancer diagnosis.

Please explain pap in rapid method Reply. Background of smears, overall staining pattern, cell morphology and nuclear staining. Natural history of precancerous and early cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix.

In some cases, a computer system may prescreen the slides, indicating those that do not need examination by a person or highlighting areas for special attention. So it can be uncomfortable, but it is generally quick, and the information obtained may be critical. Abnormal results are reported according to the Bethesda system. Our study was conducted by adapting this modified staining technique which involves the replacement of Gill's hematoxylin with Harris hematoxylin. Support Center Support Center.

Atrophic squamous cells in postmenopausal women. Conclusions While reviewing all the results, it is concluded that premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix are not uncommon in our set up. Cancer cervix is the second most common cancer in women in the world, while it is the leading cancer in women in the developing countries. Normal squamous epithelial cells in premenopausal women.

Papanicolaou stain

For other cervical screening tests and human papillomavirus testing, see Cervical screening. Mixtures of the same name from different vendors therefore can differ in composition, occasionally producing different or poor results. Timing is crucial in the regressive method as de-staining may lead to a hyperchromatic nucleus becoming hypochromatic. Global examples, less focus on two selective regions of the world.

Detection of abnormal cervical cytology by pap smears. Trichomonas organism seen in the upper right. Endometrial biopsy Endometrial ablation. This study is based on patients who attended the out-patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Papanicolaou stain

Cytopathological pattern of cervical Pap smear according to the Bethesda system in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Changing spectrum of squamous cell abnormalities observed on Papanicolaou smears in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, over a year period. The results are in concordance with present study. This technique was developed by George Papanicolaou, the father of Cytopathology. This is especially useful for smears of vascular organs like the thyroid and in identification of Reed Sternberg's cells of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Adenocarcinoma of the cervix has not been shown to be prevented by Pap tests. Air dried smears also have shortcomings such as magnification in the cell size, and often the morphology of the cells is not crisp. The test was independently invented by Dr. Rapid staining techniques employed in fine needle aspirations. This method has a short staining time of seconds, and also the cytomorphology can be well appreciated.

Annals of Internal Medicine. Introduction, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation. Superficial cells are orange to pink, and intermediate and parabasal cells are turquoise green to blue.



Gynecologic ultrasonography Hysterosalpingography. Gynaecological cancer Medical tests Papillomavirus-associated diseases Cytopathology Infectious causes of cancer Greek inventions. This prospective study was carried out in the cytopathology laboratory of a large tertiary care teaching hospital.

Papanicolaou stain

The results correspond with many previous studies. Cancer of cervix is a major cause of death in women living in developing countries. Guidelines on frequency vary from every three to five years.

The cells are placed on a glass slide and taken to the laboratory to be checked for abnormalities. Is it economical to switch to rapid, economical acetic acid papanicolaou stain?

The staining results in very transparent cells, so even thicker specimens with overlapping cells can be interpreted. Koilocytes may be observed where there is some dyskaryosis of epithelium.

This study was conducted on Pap smears prepared from patients presenting with complaints like vaginal discharge, post-coital bleeding, inter-menstrual bleeding, dyspareunia and pain lower abdomen. In the progressive method, the nucleus is stained with hematoxylin to a intensity desired. Correct diagnosis was made in all cases. However, Pap smears are very sensitive and some negative biopsy results may represent undersampling of the lesion in the biopsy, so negative biopsy with positive cytology requires careful follow-up.


If you have all dry cells you will loose all stainig criteria and end up with brown smear and nothing to diagnose. Papanicolaou chose stains that highlighted cytoplasmic keratinization, which actually has almost nothing to do with the nuclear features used to make diagnoses now. Of these, the graphic design exercise book pdf the Ultra-Fast Pap stain has become popular. Discussion Cancer cervix is considered to be an ideal gynaecological malignancy for screening as it meets both test and disease criteria for screening.